Anterior cruciate ligament is important ligament which stabilizes Knee joint anteriorly. ACL is usually injured in twisting injuries of knee, commonly in sports like football, tennis, basketball.
- Instability – it s feeling of knee giving way or coming out during activities
- Many times it is associated with meniscus or collateral ligament injuries.
- MRI – it’s a investigation of choice in diagnosing ACL tear.
- X ray – Since ACL is soft tissue structure, it is not seen in X- ray. However X ray rules out injury or avulsion.
- Diagnostic arthroscopy – after the easy availability of MRI, role of diagnostic arthroscopy has decreased over years.
ACL reconstruction is required in treatment of full thickness ACL tear with instability.
ACL reconstruction is required if:
- The injury is causing your knee to buckle during everyday activities
- You’re young
- You’re an athlete and want to continue in your sport, especially if the sport involves jumping, cutting or pivoting
- More than one ligament or the meniscus in your knee is injured
Various autologous tissues can be used as graft. Usually one or two hamstring tendons from same side are used as graft. They are usually harvested by a small incision below the knee. Tunnels are made in thigh bone(femur) and leg bone (tibia) using appropriate reamer.
Graft is fixed with small titanium button (endobutton) on thigh bone side. Bio-absorbable screw , metallic screw or metallic disc can be used to fix the graft on leg bone side.
Physiotherapy is important part in recovery. Physiotherapy is usually required before and after surgery.